Demographics or demographic data refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research.
Commonly-used demographics include:
mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available),
employment status, and even location.
Distributions of values within a demographic variable, and across households, are both of interest, as well as trends over time. Demographics are frequently used in economic and marketing research.
Demographic profiles in marketing
Marketers typically combine several variables to define a demographic profile. A demographic profile (often shortened to "a demographic") provides enough information about the typical member of this group to create a mental picture of this hypothetical aggregate.
For example, a marketer might speak of the single, female, middle-class, age 18 to 24, college educated demographic.
Marketing researchers typically have two objectives in this regard: first to determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population;
and secondly to create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each of these segments. Once these profiles are constructed, they can be used to develop a marketing strategy and marketing plan.
A generational cohort has been defined as "the aggregation of individuals (within some population definition) who experience the same event within the same time interval".
The notion of a group of people bound together by the sharing of the experience of common historical events due to their birth in a particular period of time was first introduced by Karl Mannheim in the early 1920s.
Today the concept has found its way into popular culture through well known epitomes like "baby boomer" and "Generation X".
You Dudes are:
# Generation Y cohort also called N Generation (born from 1981 to 2001)
* Memorable events: rise of the internet, September 11 attacks, cultural diversity,two wars in Iraq, Global financial crisis of 2008–2009
* Key characteristics: quest for physical security and safety, heightened
A demographic or demographic profile
is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment.
This typically involves age bands (as teenagers do not wish to purchase denture fixant),
social class bands (as the rich may want different products than middle and lower classes and may be willing to pay more)
and gender (partially because different physical attributes require different hygiene and clothing products, and partially because of the male/female mindsets).
A demographic profile can be used to determine when and where advertising should be placed so as to achieve maximum results.
In all such cases, it is important that the advertiser get the most results for their money, and so careful research is done to match the demographic profile of the target market to the demographic profile of the advertising medium.
A good way to figure out the intended demographic of a television show, TV channel, or magazine is to study the ads that accompany it.
For example, in the United States the television program The Price is Right most frequently airs from 11 a.m. to Noon. The commercials on it (besides the use of product placement in the show itself) are often for things like arthritis pain relievers and diapers.
This indicates that the target demographics are senior citizens and parents with young children, both of whom would be home at that time of day and see that show.
Another example would be MTV, for it has many ads with digital audio players indicating that the channel is targeted to young adults and teenagers and/or fans of music.
Attempt a demographic profile of the people pictured in the five images above. What television programmes might they watch? Of course you will be generalising from very few clues, but hey! that’s how the great semiotician Sherlock Holmes got his reputation.For a definition of semiotics click not Magritte’s pipe left.
The marketing material which follows comes from the excellent site above. Check it out.
divides the market into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses and responses to the product.
The following are commonly applied behavioural segments
Occasions Groups individuals according to the occasions when they purchase, use or think of buying a product.
Benefits Sought Groups individuals according to the benefits they seek from the product.
Usage Rate Groups individuals according to the level of usage they make of the product, be it Heavy, Medium or Light usage.
User Status Groups individuals according to wether they are non-users, potential users, first-time users, regular users, or ex-users of a product
Loyalty Status Groups individuals according to their level of loyalty to the product. 'Hard core loyals' always purchase the product / brand in question. Whilst 'Soft core loyals' will sometimes purchase another brand, and 'Switchers' will not specifically seek out a particular brand, but rather purchase the brand available to them at time of need, or that which was on sale.
Buyer Readiness Stage Groups
individuals according to their readiness to purchase the product. This segmentation model is particularly useful in formulating and monitoring the marketing communication strategies employed to move consumers towards purchase of a product or brand.
Stages in Buyer-Readiness
At the launch of a new product, the target market may not even be aware that the product exists, even established products seeking to enter new segments of the market may need to raise awareness of both their company and their product. The now infamous Benetton promotion campaigns had as one of their objectives, raising awareness of the Benetton brand, and what ever you think of the methods the company used, the fact remains that Benetton became one of the 5 most recognised brands in the world.
The audience may well be aware of a product or company, but still have either very little knowledge of what the product or company does, or possibly worse have the wrong impression of both the product and company. Daewoo when it first entered the UK Car Market, had to go about educating the target market about both its products and the company itself, early promotional material therefore informed the audience about the size, history and strength of the company.
Knowing about a company or product does not mean the audience will necessarily like either, they may well be ambivalent, have no feeling at all, or even dislike the product. An audience with knowledge of a product must therefore be moved to the stage of liking the product. Promotion must seek to develop a positive attitude towards the product, or if market research identifies a poor product image in the market, promotion must seek to address these issues within its promotional campaign. IKEA addressed head-on the target markets concerns, that much of their furniture has to be assembled after purchase, and that there are limited staff available on the shop floor, cleverly turning what the audience may well have originally perceived as negatives into positives of shopping at IKEA.
Given the level of competition in markets today, it is often the case that the potential customer will like several competing products on the market, promotion must now therefore seek to develop within the audience a preference for their product. Through research the business must establish the key features of the product in the eyes of the target market, these might include efficiency, performance, economy, value, and quality. Promotion will now therefore underline the advantages of the product in terms of these key features, which differentiate it from the competition.
An audience which prefers a particular product, may still not buy that product based on pure preference. In fact many customers will purchase a competitors product which they did not prefer purely because they were convinced it was the right decision at that time. Promotion must now build confidence in the audience that their preference for the product is justified, and convince them through a range of promotion tools including for example the use of positive press reviews, and expert recommendations that their product is the right one to buy.
The last stage in buyer-readiness is purchase of the product, unfortunately conviction to buy may still not result in actual purchase, this may for example be due to the individuals current financial situation. Many customers will need further persuasion to make the purchase. Promotion may offer Sales Promotion discounts, or Personal Selling through Sales Representatives, in order to convert preference and conviction into a sale.