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Production.

The production consists of four tasks :


(i) a pitch for an imaginary film (10 marks)


(ii) a preproduction from a list of options based on the pitch

    ( 20 marks)

-(iii) a final production from a list of options based on the pitch

    (30 marks)

 (iv) an evaluative analysis of the final production (10marks)

.

Note: The production should not be based on the genre set for Paper One (Exploring Film)

4 T A S K S

(i) pitch

Create a sales pitch for an imaginary film (approximately 150 words) consisting of:

 *a logline (a one or two sentence summary of your film’s narrative)

*brief reference to the film's genre, stars, narrative and audience.


(ii) preproduction

Choose one of the following options based on the film you have outlined in your pitch:

* produce a screenplay for the opening scene of your film (approx 500 words)

* create a storyboard of approximately 20 frames for a key sequence from your film

* produce digitally the front page and contents page for a new film magazine featuring your film

* produce a marketing campaign for your film (at least 4 items, for example, a teaser poster, a display item for a cinema foyer and two different kinds of merchandising

(iii) final production

Choose one of the following options based on the film you have outlined in your pitch:

* create a short film sequence of approximately 2 minutes which creates tension and/or atmosphere (the sequence may be from any section of film, including the pre-credit sequence)

* produce a home page and at least one linked page for a website promoting your new film

* produce a feature based on the production of your new film for a film or school/college magazine. The feature should consist of a minimum of 2 pages and include star/director interviews,              bi ographies and at least 2 appropriately captioned images from the production

* produce a poster campaign for your new film (at least 3 different posters)

* produce a press pack for your new film containing a minimum of 4 items including at least 2 promotional still photographs using original images.


Note:

*The use of original images in pre production work is encouraged

. The main images for the production options must be original.

* ‘Found’ images (scanned or downloaded images), where integral to the production, may be used alongside the main original images.

Creative manipulation of these images is expected for a performance above Level 2 (for levels see Marking Criteria).

* If candidates work in a group, the film sequence should be based on one individual's pitch

. The main images for the production options must be original.

Original means that your images,in effect your photographs will have to be produced/taken by you.

This rather rules out the blowing up of the houses of Parliament or shots of Godzilla eating New York or even two hundred zombies swarming/lurching up Leeds’ Headrow. However if any of you are mates with Benedict Cumberbatch you could use him……


SO…..

Think local, think friends, think family…

Think smaller genres or smaller versions of BIG genres i.e. instead of ZOMBIE APOCALYPSE think strange viral out break in local school.

Above all avoid junkies , syringes, overdoses and drugs generally.

WHY?

Because we know the examiners are sick and tired of them!!!

The 3 poster example below was produced entirely on the Benton campus

YOUNG LIVES IN THE FAST LANE IT WAS A COLLISION COURSE WITH DEATH J O Y R I D E R S YOUNG LIVES IN THE FAST LANE

Using only a photograph of the Sixth Form Council the horror genre can be suggested via colour,the right fonts and tagline and the superimposition of a “found” image. More marks still if you drew Satan or used flames you photographed your self.

Clearly given the mark scheme and the fact that the WJEC are looking for original images it is important that you know you can produce those original images yourself

Bearing that fact in mind your production choice should be guided by what you know you are able to produce yourself photographically.

Furthermore it is my experience that an examiner tends to be guided in her/his assessment of the whole by the standard of the production proper. The production in any event carries the lion share of the marks (see mark breakdown below)

Production

(i) pitch 10 marks

(ii) preproduction 20 marks

(iii) final production 30 mar ks

(iv) evaluative analysis 10 marks

They were the chosen ones….. Chosen by Satan

 Final production ( 30 ) Marking Scheme

Use creative and technical skills to construct film products.

 

Level 1:

0 - 8 Limited, little or no ability to use creative and technical skills to construct film products. Where relevant : written communication uneven and limited with high proportion of inaccuracies.


Level 2:

9 - 17 (9 - 12) (13 - 17) Basic ability to use creative and technical skills to construct film products. Where relevant: written communication basic with some inaccuracies. Uneven ability to use creative and technical skills to construct film products. Where relevant: written communication more generally accurate although still with some inaccuracies .


Level 3:

18 - 2 3 (18 - 20) (21 - 23) Adequate ability to use creative and technical skills to construct film products. Where relevant: written communication adequate . Appropriate specialist terminology emerging. Good ability to use creative and technical skills to construct film products. Where relevant: written communication good. More confident use of appropriate specialist terminology.

 

Level 4:

2 4 - 3 0 Excellent ability to use creative and technical skills to construct film products. Where relevant: written communication excellent. Confident and well integrated use of appropriate specialist terminology. Clearly we will all be striving to reach this level!

 Pitch (10marks)

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how films communicate meanings, evoke personal responses and engage audiences.

Level 1: 0 - 2 Limited, little or no knowledge and understanding of how to pitch a film. Written communication uneven and limited with high proportion of inaccuracies.


Level 2: 3 - 5 Basic knowledge and understanding of how to pitch a film. Written communication basic with some inaccuracies .

 

Level 3: 6 - 7 Adequate knowledge and understanding of how to pitch a film. Written communication adequate . Appropriate specialist terminology emerging . Good knowledge and understanding of how to pitch a film. Written communication good . More confident use of appropriate specialist terminology.

 

Level 4: 8 - 10 Excellent knowledge and under standing of how to pitch a film. Written communication excellent. Confident and well - integrated use of appropriate specialist terminology

Pitching Exercise:

I've put together a pitching exercise to get you thinking about how to describe your own work using simple loglines. We will look at five examples of well-known, memorable films and see if their loglines can give us the big idea of the movie.


Pretend for a moment that you're in your living room with your feet up getting ready to watch a movie. You open up your TV guide and you're deciding what to watch based on the description or logline of the film. Those TV magazines always do a nice job of breaking down a film into one or two sentences.


In this exercise, first I'll give you the logline, and then provide the answers at the end.


Logline #1 - The extraordinary story of a thoroughbred racehorse - from his humble beginnings as an under-fed workhorse to his unlikely rise and triumphant victory over the Triple Crown winner, War Admiral.


Logline #2 - A 17th Century tale of adventure on the Caribbean Sea where the roguish yet charming Captain Jack Sparrow joins forces with a young blacksmith in a gallant attempt to rescue the Governor of England's daughter and reclaim his ship.


Are you getting the hang of it so far? Here's a few more:


Logline #3 - After segueing from a life of espionage to raising a family, Gregorio and Ingrid Cortez are called back into action. But when they are kidnapped by their evil nemesis, there are only two people in the world who can rescue them... their kids!


Logline #4 - Toula's family has exactly three traditional values - "Marry a Greek boy, have Greek babies, and feed everyone." When she falls in love with a sweet, but WASPy guy, Toula struggles to get her family to accept her fiancée, while she comes to terms with her own heritage.


Logline #5 - A young man and woman from different social classes fall in love aboard an ill-fated voyage at sea.


Answers:

1. Seabiscuit 2. Pirates of the Caribbean 3. Spy Kids 4. My Big, Fat, Greek Wedding 5. Titanic

Make Your Logline Memorable


The main point to remember about this exercise is that you have to try to boil down your own  ideas into something that's easy for people to understand. If you can't relate to an agent, a publisher, a producer or even a studio executive what your story is about in one or two sentences, then it will be difficult to get them interested in reading your work, and more importantly, wanting to buy it.


Keep in mind however, that a good logline doesn't tell someone too much. It's always good to leave a little something to the imagination. In the case of Spy Kids, you want the person you're pitching, to ask you, "Hey, what does happen when the kids have to save their parents?" And that's when you can say, "Well, you'll have to read my screenplay to find out."


Additionally, when you're pitching your story logline, you don't want to sound like a snake-oil salesman by telling someone: "It's like Die Hard on a bus" or "It's like Batman meets The Fugitive." What does that even mean? However, if you told me that your script was about "A man who is bitten by a genetically-altered spider, and soon discovers that he has unusual powers and the strength and agility of a spider." Well, I'd say, that's definitely a movie I'd want to see.


Some may ask, why is the Spiderman logline an excellent idea? It's excellent because, while we all can't relate to what it would be like to be Spiderman, the film has many  themes that we can all relate to such as: unrequited love, parental approval and of course, wish fulfillment as a superhero and, of course, it has a long history in comic book form.

The above splendid advice from:http://www.writersstore.com/writing-loglines-that-sell/

What a great tagline for a poster!

In his mind… JUSTICE! starting tonight!

This is an excellent  and most helpful site…packed with good sense and useful tips, it get better as you read on with real insighys into how the film industry works.

http://goodinaroom.com/blog/how-to-develop-a-pitch-for-your-screenplay-a-case-study/

Here is an example of an actual GCSE Pitch, a very thorough piece of work.

See marker’s comment at the end.

More actual examples may be found here:

http://www.slideshare.net/belair1981/gcse-film-studies-pitch-examples

An interesting pitch from Dev Benegal and Julian Kemp on you tube where you will find many other examples

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPzy_9x006U

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1uj2X2DdWs

The difference between a logline and a tagline

A logline is a one (or occasionally two) sentence description that boils the script down to its essential dramatic narrative in as succinct a manner as possible.

A tagline is a piece of marketing copy designed to go on posters to sell the film

- In space no one can hear you scream (Alien)

Crucially, a logline contains all the elements necessary for the telling of a good story. It is written for industry professionals to show them that you can create a viable story for the script – a marketing hook alone won’t cut it.

One further note that you won’t like:

A logline is the DNA of your script. If you can’t make the logline work, it’s probably becasue the story in your script doesn’t work. This is why some people suggest writing a logline for your idea before embarking on the script.

Not sure where to begin?

These tips are going to help:

1. A logline must have the following

*the protagonist -       

*their goal -       

*the antagonist/antagonistic force


2. Don’t use a character name

It has no intrinsic information and so is a useless word. Instead, tell us something about the character.

- A sous-chef

- An ex-cop

3. Use an adjective to give a little depth to that character

This is your chance to show some character. Beware of cliche, and also of the power of irony. It’s helpful if the characteristic you describe will have something to do with the plot.

- A mute sous-chef

- An alcoholic ex-cop


4. Clearly and quickly present the protagonist’s main goal

This is what drives your story and it will drive your logline too. Make sure that the goal is present early in the script – if you don’t make good on your logline’s promise early enough the rest of the script won’t get read.

- A mute sous-chef wants to win the position of Head Chef at her boss’ new restaurant

- An alcoholic ex-cop searches for his daughter


5. Describe the Antagonist

The antagonist should be described in a similar, but preferably shorter, manner than the hero. If the hero faces a more general antagonistic force then make it clear that they are battling something, not just life’s bumps and buffets.

- A mute sous-chef wants must fight off an ambitious rival to win the position of Head Chef at her boss’s new restaurant.

- An alcoholic ex-cop searches for his daughter after she is kidnapped by his dementing, jealous former sidekick.


6. Make sure your protagonist is pro-active

He or she should drive the story and do so vigorously. A good logline will show the action of the story, the narrative momentum that carries you through the script. In some cases the protagonist will be reactive, but note, this is not the same as passive.


7. If you can, include stakes and/or a ticking time-bomb

These are very useful narrative devices that add urgency to your script. If they fit in easily, include them in your logline.

To save his reputation a secretly gay frat-boy must sleep with 15 women by the end-of-semester party.


8. Setup

Some scripts operate in a world with different rules to our own and require a brief setup to explain them, e.g. most science-fiction stories. Others have a protagonist whose personal or psychological history is crucial to the story and needs to be explained. Again, be brief.

- In a world where all children are grown in vats…

- Driven to a mental breakdown by an accident at work, an aquarium manager…


9. About the ending

Do not reveal the script’s supercool twist ending, even if it is the next The Usual Suspects. The story, and thus the logline, should be good enough to hold up by itself; a surprise ending should be a lovely bonus found when reading the script. N.B. This all changes when you get to writing your treatment.


10. Don’t tell the story, sell the story

Create a desire to see the script as well as telling them what’s in it. Loglines are like poetry, every word counts. Tinker, test, and tinker some more.

The above from this excellent site:

http://www.raindance.org/10-tips-for-writing-loglines/

Read a huge series of taglines here….some good, some less so.You will have to scroll down the page. You might want to choose your five particular favourites.

http://scriptshadow.blogspot.co.uk/2009/11/top-100-loglines-for-scriptshadow.html

Screenwriting Tips

By Gordy Hoffman

After cracking hundreds of screenplays sent into the BlueCat Screenplay Competition, the same problems in the execution of the story and script continue to emerge. Here is a general overview of these persistent issues.

Do you realize what you're saying??

In the theatre, they read plays aloud over and over in the process of script development, and one of the reasons they do this is to hear the dialogue. When I hear dialogue in my head, it might sound very good, but then when I hear a person actually speak it, I often have an impulse to jump in front of a bus. And over and over and over and over, when I read screenplay entries to BlueCat, I am immediately dismayed when the characters start speaking. Excellent everything else, awful dialogue. And I often wonder if the writer has actually heard the lines they have written for their characters out loud. Either read the whole thing aloud to yourself, or even better, get a group of your friends to read it. You do not need professional actors to evaluate dialogue. Just people excited to help. Videotape it. I have videotaped readings, and then sat down and worked out an entire rewrite off the tape, addressing every single line that bothered me. Which leads me to another thing.

Ha.

It's hard to pass a screenplay on to industry contacts if an unfunny joke is sitting in the middle of page two. It’s highly difficult if there’s twelve by page five. You might have a payoff in your third act that would break my heart, but if your jokes are poor, the heart of your audience will be shot, probably resentful, and your work will be recycled. Please try your humor out. If your beats aren’t funny to some people, rewrite. Trust a truly hilarious bit is coming. Think of the patience you need to muster through this writing process as courage, because it is. If you find you are not funny, write a script that is not funny. Many, many great scripts are not funny, as we all know.

Mispellings.

Do you think the development people in Los Angeles, basically the smartest people in the film industry, will not be annoyed and continue to read your script when you have misspelled three words in the first five pages? Perhaps. How do you feel when you're reading something and you find misspelled words? How does your attitude shift towards the author?

OKAY, WE GOT IT!

Try to limit your scene description. When a person opens your script, how many INCHES of action slug are they looking at on page one? Is there anyway you can convey what you want us to SEE with less words? I always go back and CUT CUT CUT to prevent my screenplay from fatiguing my reader with excess words as they try to listen for my story. Do we need to know what necklace someone is wearing? We all understand making motion pictures is collaborative. I strive to let the art department and the costumer and the prop master and so on DO THEIR JOB by not making their decisions in the screenplay, because I have little passion for it and don’t do it well. They will make their own choices, and most likely better ones, so why bother? Always use fewer words to say the same thing.

It's not show and tell, it's show not tell.

I constantly find myself being told something by the screenplay the viewer of the film will not be aware of. Screenplays are not literature. They are words assembled to describe what motion pictures will play out on the screen. Telling us a character is a jealous person is passive and dull. Showing a character in an act of jealousy ismore effective and essentially cinematic. Let the words and actions of your characters carry your story. This is not easy. You want the actor or director to understand what you want and what you mean. Allow the description of physical actions and the recording of spoken words reveal the narrative to the filmmakers. The script will read faster and offers the reader a richer opportunity to imagine and discover.

The Joy of Making Things Up.

I really cherish the idea, that as a writer, I can make things up. If I want the guy to say something, all I have to do is type it. But I have to fight against creating characters and interactions amongst characters derived from movies I have watched and television I have seen. I often find myself writing a scene only to realize I'm not drawing from my imagination or my own life experience or my observations of people, I'm drawing from the millions of hours of observing actors play human beings on television and in movie theaters. And because I’m writing a “MOVIE,” it is even more difficult, because I’m fighting against a subconscious or unconscious observation that this is "how people act in movies." Stop yourself and ask, would this happen on planet Earth? Do I know how people from Miami really speak? What would a person actually say if they had a gun in their face? Can you possibly imagine what could happen? This is your opportunity to be truly imaginative. Answer your own expectations of original work. A mature writer develops a strong capacity to recognize and reject the false.

Ouch.

Forced exposition. This is when a brother tells a sister on page two that he will be attending a school which dad wouldn't pay for because he bought a farm that the whole family will be moving to tomorrow because he found that the city was a really bad place to live in after mom was really scared because of that mugging thing that happened after they came back from the sister's graduation from high school. When characters engage in an unbelievable conversation about matters in which they would be familiar with, or when they proclaim something completely out of nowhere simply to inform the audience of key facts crucial to their understanding of the movie, you have a problem. This awkward exposition will not be seen as genuine human behaviour and will detach your audience from the emotional current of your story. Exposition is necessary and difficult to execute. Be careful how you offer information crucial to your story at the start of your screenplay. This is a common problem in early drafts. Exposition needs to be seamless and graceful.

Format.

You know what? Go get a script and copy what you think it looks like and you'll be fine. Trust me. Spec scripts are sitting on desks all over Hollywood and their format is not consistent at all. Getting crazy about format sells screenwriting software. But if your script looks like a book, or a poem, or a magazine article, your screenplay format is wrong. Just make it look  like a movie script, and that can include camera and transition directions as well as suggestions for music and sound.


Types of Transitions

In film editing, transition refers to how one shot ends and the next begins, and the filmic device that bridges one to the other. Many different types of transitions have been employed since the early years of cinema. Some are outdated, used mainly to refer to those first years, but others are still greatly used today. Each type invokes a different emotion. Understanding those emotions is essential to master editing.

Cut

The most basic and common type of transition is the cut. A cut happens when one shot instantly replaces the other. Cuts are so widely used that feature movies normally count thousands of them.

Cuts are essential for the effects of juxtaposition, especially as demonstrated by the Kuleshov Experiment. Although most cuts exist simply for a technical need, the abrupt replacement of one shot by the other often demands a certain interpretation from the viewer.

Cuts became industry standard for two reasons: First, during the early years of cinema, when editing actual film, the editor could very easily cut the celluloid strip with a blade or scissors and splice it together. Any other type of transition would require further processing from a specialized lab; therefore increasing costs. Second, the other types of transition are more distracting. Cuts allow for a better flow of the movie.



Fade in/out

Fade ins and fade outs are the second most common type of transition. Fade outs happen when the picture is gradually replaced by black screen or any other solid color. Traditionally, fade outs have been used to conclude movies. Fade ins are the opposite: a solid color gradually gives way to picture, commonly used in the beginning of movies.

Despite being the second most used transition, fades are seldom adopted by editors. An average feature film will have only a couple of fades, if that. Fades are used sparingly because they imply the end of a major story segment. Fades are also utilized when allowing the audience time to catch their breath after an intense sequence.

Dissolve

Also known as overlapping, dissolves happen when one shot gradually replaces by the next. One disappears as the following appears. For a few seconds, they overlap, and both are visible. Commonly used to signify the passage of time.

Wipe

Wipes are dynamic. They happen when one shot pushes the other off frame. George Lucas deliberately used them throughout the Star Wars series.

What appears below is how in broad terms a screenplay should look .It contains very little in the way of camera directions,transitions, sound diegetic or otherwise. As you are writing for a Film examiner it will demonstrate your understanding of film language if you do include these directions.

Show the examiner that you know that a wide shot or a tight close up will work to enhance your script. Show too that you understand how music can help a scene by setting the mood or adding atmosphere or both. Mention diegetic sound, a countryside shot is more atmospheric if we have birds on the sound track. A slamming door is more effective if you put a note that the sound should be amplified.

Any filmic direction will be welcomed by the examiner as it shows an awareness of how film works

S C R E E N P L A Y S

Drew’s Script-O-Rama where you can find screenplays and shooting scripts of virtually every major movie ever made

http://www.script-o-rama.com/

Shot sizes direct who and what we see, camera angles affect how we perceive it.

Is a character going to appear dominant and tall? Or short and weak?

A strong weapon in the cinematographer’s arsenal is the ability to position the camera in relation to the subject or scenery.

Eyelevel Angle

An eyelevel angle is the one in which the camera is placed at the subject’s height, so if the actor is looking at the lens, he wouldn’t have to look up or down. Eyelevel shots are incredibly common because they are neutral. They often have no dramatic power whatsoever, thus they are ideal for romantic comedies and news casting.

Low Angle

Low angles are captured from a camera placed below the actor’s eyes, looking up at them. Low angles make characters look dominant, aggressive, or ominous.

High Angle

In a high angle, the camera is above the subject, looking down. This position makes characters look weak, submissive, or frightened. They are also good POVs of an adult looking at a child:

Dutch Tilt

Also called canted angle, a Dutch tilt has the camera leaning sideways, transforming the horizon into a slope. A Dutch tilt changes horizontal and vertical lines into diagonals and creates a more dynamic composition. Though rare, canted angles can be employed with great artistic effect to disorient and disturb the viewer.

Point-of-View (POV)

As the name suggests, point-of-view shots are angles in which the camera incorporates a character’s eyes. POVs are usually preceded by a close-up of the character’s eyes.

Camera Moves

Pan

During a pan, the camera is aimed sideways along a straight line. Note that the camera itself is not moving. It is often fixed on tripod, with the operator turning it either left or right. Panning is commonly utilized to capture images of moving objects like cars speeding or people walking; or to show sweeping vistas like an ocean or a cliff.

A smooth pan with be slow enough to allow the audience to observe the scenery. A fast pan will create blur. If it’s too fast, it will be called a Swish pan.

Tilts refer to the up or down movement of the camera while the camera itself does not move. Tilts are often employed to reveal vertical objects like a building or a person.

Dolly

When the entire camera moves forward or backward, this move is called dolly. If the camera is on tripod, the tripod will also be moved. Dollies are often used when recording a subject that moves away or toward the camera, in which case the goal would probably be keeping the subject at the same distance from the camera. For an optimal dolly, the camera should be mounted on a wheeled-platform, such as an actual dolly, or a shopping cart, depending on the budget. Moving the camera forward is called dolly in. Moving the camera backward is called dolly out.

Track

Tracking is similar to dolling. The main difference being that in dollies the camera is moved toward or away from the subject, whereas in a track shot, the camera is moved sideways, parallel to an object.

Pedestal

In a pedestal move, the camera body will physically be lowered or elevated. The difference between tilts and pedestals is that in the former, the camera lens is just being aimed up or down, whereas in the latter, the camera is being moved vertically.

Zoom

Despite a common misconception, the terms “zoom” and “dolly” are not interchangeable. With dollies, the camera is being moved in a physical space. With zooms, the camera remains at a constant position, but the lens magnify or minimize the size of the subject. Zooms happen at the push of a button. Zoom in refers to seemingly “approaching” the subject, thus making it look bigger in the frame. Zoom out refers to seemingly “distancing” the subject, thus making it look smaller.

Note: Zooms are not really a move, for the camera doesn’t change position. But in film studies and filmmaking courses they have been traditionally combined with real camera moves.

Dolly Counter Zoom

A dolly counter zoom is a rare type of shot of great stylistic effect. To accomplish it, the camera has to dolly (move) closer or further away from the subject while the zoom is adjusted so the subject’s size remains about the same. Notably, Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958), Spielberg’s Jaws (1975), and Scorsese’s Goodgellas (1990) used dolly counter zoom to demonstrate a character’s uneasiness.


Hand held Camera

Hand-held camera or hand-held shooting is a filmmaking and video production technique in which a camera is held in the camera operator's hands as opposed to being mounted on a tripod or other base. Hand-held cameras are used because they are conveniently sized for travel and because they allow greater freedom of motion during filming.

Hand-held camera shots often result in an image that is perceptibly shakier than that of a tripod-mounted camera. Purposeful use of this technique is called shaky camera and can be heightened by the camera operator during filming, or artificially simulated in post-production. To prevent shaky shots, a number of image stabilization technologies have been used on hand-held cameras including optical, digital and mechanical methods.

The Steadicam, which is not considered to be a "hand-held" camera, uses a stabilizing mount to make smoother shots. The entire shooting of “Donnie Darko” was done with steadicam.

Students should make  some use of this camera technique in their film screenplays.


http://www.elementsofcinema.com/cinematography/framing-shot-sizes/

A superb site contains all the thing you need to know, even a few of the things you don’t..

Juxtaposition

If a waiter served you a whole fish and a scoop of chocolate ice cream on the same plate, your surprise might be caused by the juxtaposition, or the side-by-side contrast, of the two foods.

Any time unlike things bump up against each other, you can describe it as a juxtaposition. Imagine a funeral mourner telling jokes graveside, and you get the idea — the juxtaposition in this case is between grief and humour. Juxtaposition of two contrasting items is often done deliberately in writing, music, or art — in order to highlight their differences.


THE KULESHOV EFFECT:

Creating Meaning With Editing








In the dawn of the 20th century, cinema was a new art form, consisting of many techniques that hadn’t been fully developed. The elements of editing were among them. Filmmakers knew that you could cut and splice the film strip, but they didn’t thoroughly comprehend the artistic purposes of doing so.

Lev Kuleshov, a Soviet filmmaker, was among the first to dissect the effects of juxtaposition. Through his experiments and research, Kuleshov discovered that depending on how shots are assembled the audience will attach a specific meaning or emotion to it.

In his experiment, Kuleshov cut the shot of an actor with shots of three different subjects:  a girl in a coffin, a hot plate of soup, and a pretty woman lying in a couch. The footage of the actor was the same expressionless gaze. Yet the audience raved his performance, saying first he looked sad, then hungry, then lustful.

Reaction shots, some interesting examples:

http://www.elementsofcinema.com/editing/what-is-a-reaction-shot-in-movies/

FADE IN:

INT. TOWNHOUSE/STUDY - DAY

-EARLY APRIL, 1841-

We are close on a PAIR OF BLACK HANDS as they open A FINELY WRAPPED PACKET OF VIOLIN STRINGS.

WE CUT TO the hands stringing a VIOLIN. It's not a high end piece, but it is quite nice.

WE CUT TO a wide shot of the study. Sitting in a chair with violin in hand is SOLOMON NORTHUP; a man in his late twenties. Everything about Solomon, his mien and manner,is distinguished. But he, too, seems a hardy individual. Someone who has known manual labour in his time. Solomon begins to lightly play his violin, as if testing the strings, their tuning. Satisfied, Solomon begins to play vigorously. As he does, we make a HARD CUT TO:

INT. HOUSE/LIVING ROOM - EVENING

We come in on a lively affair. A dinner party is being thrown within the confines of a fairly stately house. In attendance are EIGHT COUPLES. All are WHITE and all are FAIRLY YOUNG, in their early twenties. The men and women are dressed in very fine attire. We should get the sense that for the most part they are people of means.The furniture has been set aside in the living room. At the moment the couples are engaged in the dancing of a

REEL.

The music they are dancing to is being played by Solomon,having cut directly from the tune he was previously playing. He plays with a light determination, and in no way seems possessed with empty servitude.

Solomon concludes the reel, and the dancers break into enthusiastic applause, which is followed by personal thanks and congratulations from all. It should be clear that despite their respective races there is much admiration and appreciation for Solomon's abilities.

http://d97a3ad6c1b09e180027-5c35be6f174b10f62347680d094e609a.r46.cf2.rackcdn.com/film_scripts/12YAS_SCRIPT_BK_COVER_PAGES_FINAL.pdf